Cephalometric points


  • a) Saddle (S) – Turkish saddle geometric center, set by inspection; 
  • b) Nasion (N) – nasal suture intersection with naso-frontal suture, in the median sagittal plane, set by inspection.
  • c) Porion (Po) – External acoustic meatus uppermost point. Very difficult to set because of other anatomical elements overlapping. To locate it, Miyashita (1996) reference points were used, in which the external acoustic meatus is located posteriorly to the mandible condillar process, above the basion and the axis odontoid process;
  • d) Orbitary (Or) – right orbit cavity contour lower most point;
  • e) Anterior nasal spine (ENA) – median point formed by the extension of both maxillas in the anterior and inferior portion of the nasal floor;
  • f) Posterior nasal spine (ENP) – median point formed by the union of the posterior borders of both palatine bones;
  • g) A (Sub spinal) – anterior maxilla concaveness deepest point, between the anterior nasal spine and the upper dental arch alveolar limit;
  • h) B (Supramenton) – deepest point in the symphysis anterior concaveness;
  • i) Pogonion (Pg) – anterior most point in the mandibular symphysis;
  • j) Tegumentary pogonion (Pgt) – anterior most or most prominent point on the chin soft tissue, in the median sagittal plane;
  • k) Mentonian (Me) – lower most point in the mandibular symphysis contour;
  • l) Gnathion (Gn) – most anterior and inferior point in the mandibular symphysis;
  • m) Articular (Ar) – Intersection point on the external skull base contour with the mandible condillar process;
  • n) Gonion (Go) – most anterior and posterior mandible point in the antero-posterior direction. Located at the ramus posterior border, tangent with the mandible inferior border angle bisectrix;
  • o) Inferior root apex (Ari) – point in the lower most region of the lower central incisive root apex;
  • p) Lower incisive border (BII) – Lower central incisive crown uppermost border region point;

Source: Comparative cephalometric study


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